Sabtu, 10 Desember 2011
Senin, 05 Desember 2011
A digital library is a library in which collections are stored in digital formats (as opposed to print, microform, or other media) and accessible by computers. The digital content may be stored locally, or accessed remotely via computer networks. A digital library is a type ofinformation retrieval system.
In the context of the DELOS, a Network of Excellence on Digital Libraries, and DL.org, a Coordination Action on Digital Library Interoperability, Best Practices and Modelling Foundations, Digital Library researchers and practitioners produced a Digital Library Reference Model which defines a digital library as: "A potentially virtual organisation, that comprehensively collects, manages and preserves for the long depth of time rich digital content, and offers to its targeted user communities specialised functionality on that content, of defined quality and according to comprehensive codified policies."
Actually, this document contains a Digital Library Manifesto which introduces the three types of relevant ‘systems’, i.e. Digital Library, Digital Library System, and Digital Library Management System. It describes the main concepts characterising these systems, i.e., organisation, content, user, functionality, quality, policy and architecture. It introduces the main roles that actors may play within digital libraries, i.e., end-user, manager and software developer. Finally, it describes the reference frameworks needed to clarify the DL universe at different levels of abstraction, i.e., the Digital Library Reference Model and the Digital Library Reference Architecture.
The first use of the term digital library in print may have been in a 1988 report to the Corporation for National Research Initatives. The termdigital libraries was first popularized by the NSF/DARPA/NASA Digital Libraries Initiative in 1994. These draw heavily on As We May Think by Vannevar Bush in 1945, which set out a vision not in terms of technology, but user experience. The term virtual library was initially used interchangeably with digital library, but is now primarily used for libraries that are virtual in other senses (such as libraries which aggregate distributed content).
A distinction is often made between content that was created in a digital format, known as born digital, and information that has been converted from a physical medium, e.g., paper, by digitizing. The term hybrid library is sometimes used for libraries that have both physical collections and digital collections. For example, American Memory is a digital library within the Library of Congress. Some important digital libraries also serve as long term archives, for example, the Eprint arXiv, and the Internet Archive.
BMW has unveiled a prototype Connected Drive at the 2008 Geneva Motor Show, which is being held from 06 Mar 2008 – 16 Mar 2008. So what exactly is Connected Drive? It is a system that will allow drivers and passengers to surf online whilst traveling. But hold on, you can surf ONLY and ONLY when your car is NOT in motion. This surely makes sense or else the technology would have served to be quite a risk for the pedestrians.
Coming back to this highly innovative technology, the device can hit any URL, along with a string of custom favorites, and then display the result in the iDrive panel in the center of the dashboard.
The system is controlled with the iDrive controller, which when moved reflects a move of the cursor on the screen, while pressing it down acts as a left-button mouse click. What’s more, one can zoom into web pages as well by a factor of 1.5 or 2.0.
According to Technoride, while Connected Drive works on EDGE technology, BMW reformats pages on their own servers and then sends them to the car display. Users can also send and receive e-mails from the car, and in the future they would perhaps be able to access online banking sites too.
BMW claims that the display’s resolution is comparable to that on standard laptops
The latest BMW ConnectedDrive will be available as an option in all BMW models and its costs will be covered through a flat-rate plan. It will be available by anytime this year itself.